Heterocyclic β-keto sulfide derivatives of carvacrol: Synthesis and copper (II) ion reducing capacity

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Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters


Sixteen β-keto sulfide derivatives of carvacrol (4–19) incorporating phenyl or N, O and S heterocyclic moieties were synthesized in three steps. The relationships between heterocyclic structure and cupric, Cu(II), ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were examined. Nine of the compounds (8–9 and 13–19) showed better CUPRAC activity than trolox at neutral pH, with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) coefficients ranging between 1.20 and 1.75. Two derivatives (11–12) showed comparable reducing capacity to trolox, with TEAC values of 0.95 for 11 and 1.02 for 12. Compounds 8–9 and 11–19 were more effective at reducing the Cu (II) ion than ascorbic acid and the parent compound, carvacrol. The most effective antioxidants were those containing an oxadiazole, thiadiazole or triazole moiety. In particular, the methyl thiadiazole derivative (15) had the highest Cu(II) ion reducing capacity, with a TEAC coefficient of 1.73.