Advances in Space Research
NASA's development of a large payload, high altitude, long duration balloon, the Ultra Long Duration Balloon, centers on a pumpkin shape super-pressure design. Under certain circumstances, it has been observed that a pumpkin balloon may be unable to pressurize into the desired cyclically symmetric equilibrium configuration, settling into a distorted, undesired state instead. In this paper, we will use th concept of stability to classify equilibrium shapes of fully pressurized/fully deployed strained ball oons.
F. Baginski, K. Brakke, and W. Schur, Cleft formation in pumpkin balloons, Advances in Space Research 37 no. 11 (2006) 2070-2081.